On Amazon Day, celebrated on September 5, researchers warn about the advance in deforestation of the Amazon biome in Maranhão. Currently, the forest territory in the Maranhão region already has less than 24% of what it had in 1985 , when measurements began.
“We are far below the minimum forest. To give you an idea, if you look at the entire Amazon, around 17% of its territory was lost. The Amazon region of Maranhão lost 76% of its forest. We are in a devastated matrix, with a little forest,” explains researcher and ecologist Marlúcia Martins, from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.
In numbers, the latest information from MapBiomas demonstrates that Maranhão has 11.6 million hectares of woods. Of this domain, 85% still have local vegetation in native regions and full security Conservation Units.
In São Luís, the solitary regions where the Amazon rainforest actually remains are in the Bacanga and Rangedor Parks Conservation Units, notwithstanding the Itapiracó and Maracanã Environmental Protection Areas.
Most deforested regions
An investigation distributed by UFMA scientists in 2019 uncovered that the most basic time of deforestation in Maranhão happened in 2002, and 25 districts represent 70% of deforestation in the lawful Amazon in Maranhão. The feature goes to Barra do Corda and Grajaú.
The explanations behind the deficiency of the backwoods were fires because of the environment, the activity of hoodlums and the illicit double-dealing of lumberjacks, most authorities on the matter would agree.
For the educator of Physical Geography at UEMA, Luiz Jorge Dias, one of the primary transient techniques to turn around this the truth is to battle criminally made flames and control deforestation rates. Notwithstanding the utilization of innovation, like robots and satellite pictures, the analyst demonstrates the requirement for a more effective observing framework for flames.
“A constant checking framework, with resident interest, for the recognizable proof of dynamic warmth sources that could be worked through an information stage on mobile phones. This is a genuine chance that could confirm the information created in the research center, through the investigation of satellite pictures, and to all the more likely direct crafted by the groups for ecological assessment and avoidance of deforestation and consuming in the state an area”, he says.
A significant part of the timberland doesn’t return any longer, yet there are arrangements
Marlúcia Martins clarifies that it is beyond the realm of imagination to expect to recuperate the majority of the timberland that existed before. Notwithstanding, from what stays, the potential for recovery is still high on the grounds that Maranhão has some huge squares of backwoods, working with the making of an ‘environmental hallway’ between the squares, which would acquire incredible advancement reestablishing deforested regions.
It is likewise conceivable that nature itself recovers in the supposed “auxiliary woods”: locales that have effectively experienced some type of debasement, however, persevere and, sometimes, are recovering.
“Around there, on the off chance that you plant a section, take out the cows and quit setting the fire, the vegetation returns. You can, much of the time, when the dirt isn’t severely treated. It costs significantly less than planting everything back “, clarifies the analyst.
The incredible stalemate in Maranhão, notwithstanding, is that, as per Marlúcia, there is no law to ensure these auxiliary timberlands, since today they are not a piece of the purported “lawful stores”, or spaces of super durable insurance. The absence of guidelines for this kind of woodland gives space for crooks to do new deforestation and doesn’t add to the execution of public avoidance approaches.
“They [secondary forests] can be reforested. Furthermore, as there is no such law, there is no legitimate course even to make motivating forces for insurance and reforestation by governments,” he says.
Creatures are at risk of vanishing
As indicated by the scientist and researcher at UFMA, Tadeu G. de Oliveira, in the Amazon locale of Maranhense, an investigation did in 2020 demonstrated that 55 creatures are in danger of eradication, being 16 warm-blooded animals, 27 birds and 12 fish. The number addresses about 6.3% of Brazilian species that may presently don’t exist with the development of deforestation.
Two primate species rely upon the Maranhão Amazon, in the Caru Indigenous Reserve: Cebus kaapori and Chiropotes satanás. There is likewise Myrmecophaga tridactyla (insect-eating animal) and Priodontes Maximus (armadilla) in the Gurupi Biological Reserve, which give off an impression of being very uncommon and in an unstable circumstance.
“Nearby biological systems have been going through significant changes in their physiognomy, construction and variety of fauna and greenery species, addressing a consistent and developing danger to the support and conservation of biological systems, presenting genuine dangers to the standards of financial and ecological manageability of Maranhão region”, brings up the investigation.
Environmental Economic Zoning (ZEE)
A methodology made by the Maranhão government to lessen deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is the Ecological-Economic Zoning (ZEE) of the Maranhense Amazon Biome, a task that means to assemble a bunch of specialized logical information to design and put together the state an area.
Utilizing this information, the ZEE could finance plans, projects or activities that can guarantee the support of timberlands. Notwithstanding, the ZEE, as it was planned, likewise takes into consideration the decrease of the Legal Forest Reserve, that is, the space of rural properties that should be covered by normal vegetation.
For project advocates, for example, Professor Luiz Jorge Dias, the ZEE is significant on the grounds that it looks for harmony among improvement and natural security.
“The ZEE recognized the regions with existing ecological liabilities all through the Amazon Biome in Maranhão and brings up essential situations for regional arranging during the 2020s. Likewise, it produced the most strong logical and cartographic base in Maranhão and furthermore settled natural and neighborhood hallways for scene rebuilding,” he says.
Then again, Marlúcia Martins accepts that the endorsement of the decrease of the legitimate hold addresses a danger amidst the whole work to reforest the Amazon district of Maranhão.
“The drafting has not helped at all and we are talking about this, in the feeling of adding revisions to this law, since it is bedlam. The drafting doesn’t contribute at all to the protection of the Amazon district of Maranhão. It will corrupt significantly more. To begin with, on the grounds that it decreases a great deal. the mandatory spaces of woods substitution. Then, at that point, it puts these zones as solidification zones. At the point when it calls for solidification, it acquires the chance in the law of decreasing the lawful hold, that is, of the obligatory land that should be reforested”, says the scientist.